Sunday, March 15, 2020
How to Write a Dissertation in Statistics the One Guide You Need to Achieve Success Writing a dissertation or any other kind of research paper in statistics is quite different from almost any other discipline, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, statistics is not exactly an independent discipline; it is more of a research approach that can be used in many different fields. This means that you have to be ready to operate with many different kinds of information. Secondly, statistics all but dictates the type of approach you have to use in your writing: your dissertation has to be a quantitative research put into words, which means that the verbal part of your paper is going to be heavily dependent on numerals, tables, graphs and other similar elements. Thirdly, the fact that you are dealing with a dissertation does not make things easier, because it is an extremely complex type of academic assignment. Unlike an essay or a typical research paper, a dissertation is much larger (while an essay is rarely longer than 2000-3000 words, there is no real upper limit on the dissertationÃ¢â¬â¢s size) and is based on your original research. Differently from most other academic assignments, you have almost complete freedom on the choice of a topic (you have to get it approved by your supervisor, but otherwise can write whatever you want). All this can be the source of many problems, especially for the students who are not used to independent research. In our guide, however, you will find all the information you need to successfully write an assignment of this type. Choosing a Rewarding and Interesting Topic for a Statistics Dissertation Statistics is a peculiar subject that is different from most other disciplines because it often plays a supplementary role in other researches and can be used in virtually any line of work, from sociology and marketing to history and biology. This opens up almost unlimited prospects for different types of research; here are just some examples of what you may write about: Statistical Data Analysis Using Regression Models in Marine Biology; The Use of Approximate Causality in Machine LearningÃ¢â¬â¢s Medical Applications; Use of Regression Analysis in the Study of Kenya Population Increase and Its Influence on the Economic Situation in the Country; Effectiveness of Tilted Importance Sampling when Compared to the Classical Monte Carlo Simulation; Effectiveness Evaluation of Hotel Chain Websites Based on the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Model. But how does one find a suitable topic for oneself? Here are a few suggestions: 1. Look for a Topic That Promises Enough Data for Research Information sources and raw data are the lifeblood of any research, but it is doubly so for statistics. In other disciplines, the information your research is based on is important Ã¢â¬â it serves as a foundation for your work, it backs up your theories, it helps to create a context for your research. However, it is always your original research that takes precedence. In statistics, it is the other way around Ã¢â¬â the data is at the forefront, and your own writing simply shows what you have found out by studying the sources. In other words, you should look for a topic that not just has some data on it, but a lot of it. Even if you know there are viable sources of information, check if you will be able to access them beforehand. Alternatively, choose a topic you are sure you can gather enough data about through fieldwork. 2. Do Data Collection before Finalizing the Topic In other disciplines, it may be alright to leave the part of data collection for later. When you deal with statistics, this approach means pushing your luck. Collect the vast majority of necessary information before you submit the final version of your topic to the supervisor. 3. Do not Feel Obliged to Choose a Topic You Are in Love With One can often hear that students should strive to write such a big and important assignment as a dissertation on a topic they are genuinely passionate about. After all, you are going to spend months (at the very least) working with the subject, and it is better to write something you are genuinely interested in. However, it may not be the best idea to take this advice at face value. Yes, you should have some interest in what you write about, but it does not have to be an abiding, all-consuming interest. If you choose such a topic, especially for your first truly independent research, you will be too tempted to treat it as your magnum opus and spend too much time perfecting both the topic itself and the paper based on it. Treat the dissertation as a stepping stone, not the most important thing in your career. 4. Make Feasibility Your Primary Criterion of Choice When choosing a dissertation topic, make sure the research will be doable first and consider everything else later. Of course, your paper will have to fill a gap in the existing research on the subject, but this should not be your primary concern. It may sound contrary to everything you have heard before, but you should worry about writing a complete and viable dissertation, not achieving a breakthrough in your chosen field. Once you have found a doable topic, you can virtually always find a gap in literature associated with it and justify doing research on it. Is there already existing research on the subject? You can, among other things: Build your research on a different sample; Use a different method; Use a different analysis tool; Pick a different location. In other words, pick a feasible topic and find a rationale for using it later. 5. Work Backwards from the Available Data Once you have determined the general area you would like to work on, it is often worth looking at the available data and asking yourself Ã¢â¬ËCan I glean a viable topic from it?Ã¢â¬â¢ It is especially true for the situations in which you have easy access to the sources of information that are not readily available to the general public. How to Properly Structure a Statistics Dissertation: The Necessary Sections Unlike an essay, whose structure is usually the same, a dissertation can be vastly different even within a single discipline. Therefore, we will not provide a detailed description of how you should organize your dissertation Ã¢â¬â the instructions you receive from your college and instructor will override it anyway. Nevertheless, we will give some recommendations on how you should write certain sections that are normally present in most dissertations. Abstract An abstract is a short (usually no more than a few hundred words) summary of your research. It should mention: Why you chose the topic; How you did the research; What did you achieve; What are the implications of your research. Despite its size, one usually dedicates a lot of time and work to writing it, because you have to condense thousands of wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of data into less than a page. An abstract should be enough on its own to represent your research, and if your dissertation ever gets registered with a database, it is going to become an independent document detailing the contents of your research. Introduction Although it is located at the beginning of the dissertation, it is better to write your introduction after the rest of the paper is already done and you know what exactly you are introducing. The primary purpose of this section is to introduce your topic and research question, provide basic context for the research and lead up to the general direction of your work. Literature Review This section is supposed to show that you know where your own research fits into the existing body of literature on the subject. Here you should do the following: Summarize the current state of research and knowledge on the subject; Point out any spheres of knowledge that are relevant for your research question so that you can refer to them later; Identify the gap in the existing knowledge and provide a rationale for your work, i.e., explain why your research is necessary; Describe how you intend to fill in this gap. The order in which it is to be done is not set in stone. Feel free to experiment and see what works best in your case, so that you can build a logical and coherent structure. Methodology Methods of data collection and analysis are extremely important in statistics, so make sure to be as clear and meticulous as possible in this section. Mention any tools, equipment, processes, and methods you used to carry out your research. Make your description detailed enough for other scholars to be able to replicate your work. Results Here you give a detailed description of all results and findings of your work. Separate them into individual points and be as straightforward as possible. Discussion In this section, you turn back to the context of your work, this time considering the results of your research. Refer to the reason you did it, dwell on whether you have managed to answer your research questions and whether you expected the results you have received. Elaborate on what your research added to the literature on the subject. Conclusion This short section enumerates the main points that emerged as a result of your research and analysis of its results and tries to define what they mean for the discipline in general. You can also point out promising venues for future research uncovered by your work. Writing a Statistics Dissertation: General Recommendations 1. Make Use of Interpretations The sources providing statistical data often accompany it with interpretations. If the interpretation contains the conclusions that are relevant for your research, do not waste time redoing the calculations and use the interpretation as is (at least if you believe the source is trustworthy). 2. Use Visuals Liberally Statistics is a discipline that makes heavy use of visuals, so make sure you introduce a fair share of them into your dissertation. Whenever a graph, a chart, a diagram or a table is appropriate to prove your point, do not hesitate to add one. 3. Plan for Length Maybe you have received a word limit from your instructor, maybe you have decided upon the length of your dissertation on your own. Anyway, you should plan for length before you write the first word. A typical dissertation is at least 5,000 words long, and it is much harder to estimate such quantities by eye than with much smaller essays. Therefore, you should decide how long each section is going to be at the outset. You can alter these values later on if necessary, but this rough estimate will help you see if you are going in the wrong direction if any individual section turns out to be too long. 4. Start Writing Right Away A dissertation, especially a dissertation in statistics, is a type of academic work that is heavily dependent on finding, processing and analyzing the sources of information. To write a high-quality paper of this type you will have to read dozens of books, magazine publications and other sources, scour multiple samples of statistical data. With the impressive amount of time you have to write a dissertation, it is very easy to get into a trap of going overboard with reading up for it. As a result, you can end up with too little time to do the actual writing. To prevent this, start writing as soon as you get a basic idea of your dissertationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. You will have to rewrite and edit huge swathes of this preliminary text, but having it ready will add security to your position. 5. Study the Instructions Carefully Whatever you read in this manual or anywhere else, the instructions received from your instructor and college take precedence. Take time to read and reread them multiple times before you start writing. Make sure you understand everything. If you have any doubts, ask your instructor directly Ã¢â¬â it is better than to find out you have to rewrite half of your dissertation later on. 6. Do not Try to Make Your First Draft Ideal Like any other type of writing, a dissertation is not written in one go. In fact, if you are satisfied with your dissertation after finishing the first draft, you are doing something wrong. To write a good paper, you have to do at least four drafts: The first one is a rough approximation of what the dissertation will look like. You organize your ideas and put them under appropriate sections without worrying too much about the details. Having this draft in front of you will allow you to better understand where your arguments are lacking, what additional sources you should find and use; In the second draft, you analyze your writing to see if it makes a cohesive whole. Remove or alter sections that do not drive your argument forward, see if there are any logical errors, check if your argument is consistent; Now that you are satisfied with the overall shape of your paper, the third draft is more concerned with individual sections of the dissertations. Check if each of them contains all the necessary material, if they are logical and consistent within themselves, add or remove parts as seems necessary. See if sections are naturally connected to each other. It is also time to pay attention to the stylistic and grammatical errors; The fourth draft is what is usually called proofreading. With the dissertation almost ready, now you have to check it for typos, spelling and punctuation mistakes. You can make your job a bit easier by using online spellchecking tools: they can point out some of the more obvious mistakes, although do not trust them to root out everything. Pay special attention to the page and formatting your quotations Ã¢â¬â make sure you use the necessary style. Follow these principles, and you will be able to write a top-notch dissertation on statistics even if it is the first time you do it!
Friday, February 28, 2020
Dancing in Yemen - Essay Example Apparently, Bara is the most important dance that is a tribal marker in Yemen. Its performance is by men only with drumming accompaniment (Adra, 1998). The performance of Bara is similar to the composition of QabÃ ¤I poetry. There are tribal characteristics of Bara that differs in the wielding of performerÃ¢â¬â¢s daggers, steps and beat. In addition, the performance of Bara takes place outdoors. Occasions like religious holidays, weddings, travelling together of tribesmen, honouring distinguished guests or weddings necessitates the performance of Bara. Bara in conjunction with zÃ ¤mil has important features for resolving disputes. Interestingly, republic leaders also appreciate the performance of Bara particularly in vital functions (Adra, 1998). The aforementioned features of Bara distinguish it from lub and give it the reference of a unique dance that is entrenched in the culture of native Yemenis. In brief, lub has numerous characteristics of raq and remains regarded as a raq. For instance, the indoor genre is intimate and accompanies love songs. Lub is primarily performed by a couple of women at women gathering and two men where men gathers (Adra, 1998). There is an expectation of constant change of lub with regard to its tempi and new steps. Lub changes with fashion clothing. Such changes begin in Sanaa and take a while before filtering to al-Ahjur. Just like Bara, lub performance varies with village or region. Steps copied from adjacent villages influence the local dancing of lub. Despite the Yemenis agreement and reference of Bara as a dancing behaviour, Bara do not classify as raq. Rags, is a term that generates from Arabic language. The term translates to Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢ dancingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in English is Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢dancingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Raq composes music, light headed paly and flirtation. Interestingly, it is a contrast of the dignified presence of
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
History - Essay Example Most of these movements were socialist in nature advocating for equality of persons regardless of their race, gender or sexuality. However, the antiwar movement stood out since it campaigned against the extensive involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War. The social upheaval of the sixties occurred between the late 1950s and early to late 1960s, resulting in public unrests and mass action against the government and other organizations of the day. The campaigners were demonstrating against what they termed as causes of society deterioration; asking responsible authorities to implement changes that would see society improve. First, the movement condemned conservatism, which is the refusal of components of society to accept change. The world had become accustomed to the way things were such that no one wanted any change. Second, the social upheaval wanted an end to the culture of social conformity, where everyone did what they did not because they wanted to, but because it was acceptable to do so. For instance, social conformity made people do evil deeds because they are socially acceptable, instead of doing what is right and taking responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Finally, the social upheaval resulted from the American economic and work force resources that the government was using to support the war in Vietnam. The result of the social upheaval was, among others, the change in social structures to accommodate behaviors perceived as taboos. The aim of this paper is to discuss the social, political and economic conditions of the 1950s that lead to the social upheaval of the 1960s (Land and Lettieri 209). According to Henriksen (28), the atomic bomb that America dropped on Hiroshima had severe effects on the American society. She postulated that the scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ attempt and success in breaking down an atom into smaller pieces, resulting in literal breakdown of the American
Friday, January 31, 2020
Childhood memories Essay Thinking about my childhood, makes me feel like I want to go back and to watch me while I was doing unexpected crazy actions, it was the funniest days ever. My childhood, sometimes it makes me laugh other times I really cry. Remembering some crazy actions that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done , like jumping in the deepest part of the swimming pool while I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to swim yet, they rescued me but, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t scared, that really makes me laugh when I remember such an action. One time, my mother was pulling me up from the swimming pool after my training, she was trying to pull me out but, actually I pulled her in water, it was really funny, I still laugh when I remember that. In other hand, when I remember my grand father I really start to cry, I was 4 years when he died, I remember him and what we did together as it was yesterday, I think remembering all memories with someone when you were 4 years old, it proves how much did you love that person and how close he was to you actually, to your heart. I wish that I can go back and to live on day from my childhood, when I was always feeling that am safe, when me and my friends living day by day and we were not planning for anything to happen in the day after. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know whatÃ¢â¬â¢s meant by hater and, we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize black hearted people who talk bad about you in your back and, they just give a smile in your face. Even money were just papers for me but, now a days people can kill to earn money, all people now are racing for money. I really want to lay on my old bed as I used to sleep when I just put my head on my pillow I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about anything, I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t hate any body. I really want to live just on day of my childhood, it was fun, real fun.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Macbeth: The Main Theme of Evil William Shakespeare's "Macbeth" is a play in which a man by the name of Macbeth, who is presented as a mature man with an uncertain character. At the beginning of the story, Macbeth's character was a character with strong morals. As the play went on though, Macbeth's morality lessened immensely. After killing Duncan he was very paranoid and feared the consequences that would arise. He knew what he had done wrong. In comparing Duncan's murder with his best friend, Banquo's murder, He was much more relaxed after Banquo's death. His character shifted throughout the play. Macbeth, at this point did anything to keep his crown, even so far as to getting killed for it! I think that some sort of anatomy of evil was responsible for Macbeth's as well as other characters' wrongdoings in the story. Each character in the story had to either fight it or give into it. In Macbeth's case, he fought it and lost, and therefore, gave into it. The play makes several points about the nature of evil. One point it makes is that evil is not normal in human nature. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have to sort of "trick" themselves into murdering Duncan. First, Lady Macbeth has to beg evil spirits to tear all human feeling from her ("...spirits / That tend on mortal thoughts..." [Act I, Scene V, Lines 41-42] "Stop up th' accessand passage to remorse / That no compunctious visitings of nature / Shake my fell purpose..."[Act I, Scene V, Lines 45-47]) and then she has to make Macbeth ignore his own conscience ("Yet do I fear thy nature; It is too full o' th' milk of human kindness To catch the nearest way" [Act I, Scene V, Lines 17-19]) Once she has seen her husband's ambition has been inflamed, she is willing to risk anything to help him get the crown. It was as if she were taking her heart out to make her husband king. She has been very successful of emptying herself of human feeling. By the end of the play, both characters have been destroyed from within. Fear and guilt drive Lady Macbeth mad; Macbeth sees life as an empty, meaningless charade. (His famous speech upon hearing of Lady Macbeth's suicide: "Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow..."[Act V, Scene V, Lines 17-28]) This speech is less an expression of grief than it is a speech about the meaningless of life. The second point is that evil disrupted nature itself. In nature, there is a time and a place for everything.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
There are many standard to evaluate where a team work effectively. According to Mcshane, Olekalns, Travaglione (2011), a team is effective when it benefits its organization, its member and its own survival. Based on my experience I feel that a team work effectively not only when it finishes its objective on time and accurately, but it also motivates its member in order to survival. Motivation can increase responsibility of members in working. Being responsible in teamwork is very important because teamwork is a group of people who depend on each other to finish objective. As a result, when any members are not responsible for their tasks other people will feel uncomfortable or even angry, which can influence negatively to results. For example, in week 5, our team played role as ML team which had to provide ID and pass of keepandshare website for whole class. Unfortunately, we got trouble when account had not worked. Additionally, this is the first time we work in team; therefore, some problem still happen. To be more specific, sometimes in our team, there are still some arguments contributes to debate and then, members feel uncomfortable and we did the tasks not very well. What is more, an effective team also depends a lot on leadership. Mcshane, Olekalns, Travaglione (2011) claim that an effective leader always want to create good working environment for members and support them willingly instead of put leadership on the position of power. During short-time I led my team, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned that this point is reality because, for example, sometimes I did not understand feeling of other members in my team so some feel unconfident and results were affected negatively. There are some solutions to make a team more effective. Firstly, an effective team should have clarity of direction. Each team member has to have a specific purpose when working so as to focus on the main jobs. When everyone has a clear goal, the team can work efficiently, so the team effectiveness could be greater. Secondly, it is necessary to create an appropriate structure and strict rules to build an effective team. There are some different people in one team so that there are competing interests and personality clashes in team and that could lead to conflicts between members. Therefore, leader has a very important role in the team. The leader must contribute some rules to clarify for the team what is and is not acceptable behavior. Furthermore, leadership requirement for contributing an effective team is that the team has the appropriate skills to succeed. A common think in constructing teams is that having enough members to work on the objectives will lead to team effectiveness. It is a common mistake because more people does not mean more effective if they are not the suitable people for what is being asked to do. The leader is responsible for making sure that the team has sufficient skills and resources to fulfill its submissions. Finally, one of the most important factors of contributing team effectiveness is the respect. Each team members in one team need to listen many different ideas of other members and respect their ideas. Arguments in the team are good when that lead to an agreement between team members at the end. Each team members should be polite in communication to avoid conflicts which can make the team ineffective.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Feeding and Fishing: the Issue Facing the U.S. and the Global Community Ã¢â¬Å"Give a man a fish, feed him for a day; teach a man to fish, feed him for life.Ã¢â¬ When translated into agricultural terms, this Chinese proverb confronts the question facing the United States and the global community today. The United States has been providing food for the rest of the world for years. While this illustration of care is commendable, it also has a downside. In the future, and debatably in the present, it is not possible for the United States to continue providing for other countries. An increasing world population, a lack of methods for effectively sharing crop surpluses, and a decrease in the amount of food produced by agriculture hasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While it may be observed that the exponential rate of growth is slowing, the world population is still growing rapidly. Perhaps the biggest concern is not the actual population increase but the distribution of the growth (Wilson, Population). Ã¢â¬Å"More than 90% of world population growth occurs in developing nations that are least able to feed their people,Ã¢â¬ writes W. Fornos in the article, Population Politics (Fornos). Throughout the world, approximately two billion people are left without safe and nutritious food that is necessary for their health. Africa is one nation that will not be able to feed its expected population. In 2050, it is estimated that AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s population will reach two billion, and in order to feed this population, food production in Africa would have to increase by 300%(Population). Who else is hungry? In the United States, which is the largest exporter of food, 11 million people are hungry and 23 million are close to becoming hungry. However, one in seven people in industrialized nations, the U.S. and others, is now diagnosed as clinically obese. How can there be so many who are overweight, and arguably overfed, when there are so many hungry (Pretty)? The reason, there is not an effective system for allocating food. An effective system does not exist in the U.S., nor does it exist in the world. Until we find a way to distribute food both within nations and acrossShow MoreRelated IOOS: Integrated Ocean Observing System Essay2785 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesMany new experiments are being conducted on how the ocean affects our environment. 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